Planting garlic cloves in mid to late October will help get roots established before the ground freezes. Shoots may not emerge from the soil until the following spring. Separate the individual cloves no more than two days before planting. I like to use organic hardneck garlic from Johnny’s Seeds and cloves harvested from the summer (one wise community gardener uses the largest cloves she harvested so that she is propagating larger cloves over time).
Plant them with the base of the clove 2-3 inches deep with the pointed end up. Row spacing may vary, but spacing 4 inches apart within rows is satisfactory. Spacing will depend on the size of your planting and the space you have available. Plants can be arranged in rows 12 inches apart.
After planting, mulch with 3-4 inches of leaf or straw mulch. It will help with weed control, and will reduce fluctuating temperatures during the winter and early spring. Be sure to water in plants after you are done with the planting and mulching.
The Michigan State Extension Service is an excellent resource for home gardeners. Here is a link to one of their many articles about growing garlic https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/grow_your_own_garlic_this_fall